Urban Specialization: from Sectoral to Professional
James R. Markusen, University of Colorado Boulder
2018年11月07日 （周三） 下午15:30-17:00
James R. Markusen，美国University of Colorado Boulder经济学教授。博士毕业于Boston College，获得经济学博士学位。Markusen教授的主要研究兴趣是国际贸易，特别是集中在对大公司、跨国公司的选址、生产以及福利影响的研究。他的研究成果发表于顶级经济学期刊，包括American Economic Review（5篇）、Journal of Political Economy（2篇）、Quarterly Journal of Economics（3篇）、Review of Economic Studies（1篇）、Journal of International Economics（19篇），以及International Economics Review、Economic Journal、Journal of Public Economics、Journal of Development Economics等，并出版了多本专著。
Firms require several professions (such as engineering, finance, advertising) to produce output, and the productivity of professions within a country may vary across cities. Are firms integrated, purchasing services of all professions in one city, or fragmented, purchasing from different cities? We address this question in a model combining elements of several literatures including economic geography, multinational firms, urban economics, and trade theory. A two-city country trades with the larger world, and firms and workers within the country are mobile between the two cities. Industries differ in the intensity with which they use different professions. Comparative advantage is ultimately due to the productivity of each profession in each city, and this varies according to Ricardian comparative advantage or location- and profession-specific scale economies. Our approach creates a distribution of fragmented and integrated firms across industries and across cities. We generate a number of economic insights, several of which can be examined empirically. First, as fragmentation costs fall, a city's professional specialization rises and its sectoral specialization falls. Second, as fragmentation costs fall a city's industrial mix becomes a weaker predictor of its occupational mix, consistent with Barbour and A. Markusen (2007).